Foreign PolicyResearchMorocco, Brazil: unshakable Relations

The ascendance of the left to power in Brazil once again will not undermine Moroccan-Brazilian relations, owing to the historical, cultural, and economic bonds that intertwine these two nations.
Nyabi El Mokhtar Nyabi El Mokhtar25/06/2024253177 min

The ascendance of the left to power in Brazil once again will not undermine Moroccan-Brazilian relations, owing to the historical, cultural, and economic bonds that intertwine these two nations.

 

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Executive Summary

 At first sight, Brazil may appear geographically distant from Morocco, with many differences in culture and language. Situated in the south of a continent that represents a challenge for Morocco, every time a new president is elected or a new government rises to power. However, this paper argues that the resurgence of left-wing governance in Brazil will not cast a negative shadow on the bilateral relations shared with Morocco. Beneath the surface, Brazil and Morocco are more closely intertwined than meets the eye, and the profound bonds between these nations transcend the political fluctuations of any given government leading this Latin American nation, whether from the right or the left. While most studies on Moroccan-Brazilian relations tend to focus on the economic cooperation aspect, this paper sees that the cumulative achievements of the two countries over a long period of time provide a solid foundation for political convergence. This, in turn, bolsters economic cooperation and preserves the relations between Morocco and Brazil from being susceptible to political interests and disruptions.

 

 Introduction

Since its inception, diplomatic relations between Morocco and Brazil have ascended to new heights. The trade of Moroccan exports to Brazil alone reached approximately two billion dollars in 2021[1], and projections indicate that economic cooperation between the two countries will significantly surpass this figure in 2022. Notably, Brazil stands as the sole Latin American country connected to the Kingdom of Morocco by two direct air routes operated by Royal Air Maroc, one heading to Rio de Janeiro and the other to São Paulo. Additionally, citizens of both countries benefit from visa-free travel privileges when traveling between the two countries. The relations between Morocco and Brazil are distinguished by a consistent sense of regularity and tranquility, which can be attributed to the political orientations of both countries. Despite the successive changes in governments in Brazil, the overall alignment and cooperation with Morocco have remained largely intact. In fact, the political cooperation between Rabat and Brasília stands out as one of the most advanced among Latin American capitals. As a result, no official Brazilian political moves against Morocco have been observed on the international stage, and reciprocally, Morocco has maintained a favorable stance towards Brazil.

Despite the geographical, cultural, and linguistic differences resulting from the limited number of Portuguese speakers in Morocco compared to seven million Spanish speakers, the relations between Morocco and Brazil surpass that of other Spanish-speaking countries in Latin America. This indicates that language is not a hindrance to the political closeness between the two nations and does not impede the achieved convergence. The two nations are connected by deep-rooted political relations in their respective diplomatic histories, and political alignment is evident in their shared past and present political choices. Both countries demonstrate a commitment to economic cooperation with the international community, and presently, they share the same strategy of investing in Africa.

Looking at the past, the strong relationship between Morocco and Brazil is not a mere coincidence, but rather a result of numerous subjective and objective factors. To fully understand this dynamic, it is important to consider the geopolitical and cultural contexts of both countries. Brazil’s interest in Morocco stems from the country’s unique nature characterized by diversity in everything. This diversity has empowered Brazil’s openness to the world and encouraged it to take a leading role in establishing multi-party relations in Latin America. The Brazilian identity draws from various sources that intersect with the Moroccan model, including the African character of the country, the presence of an Arab community, and a Jewish community of Moroccan descent.

 

  1. Luis Inácio Lula da Silva and Morocco

Following its independence from the Portuguese Empire, Brazil inherited a vast territory, earning it the title of a “country-continent” in contrast to the Spanish colonies that fragmented into several surrounding nations. This Latin American giant shares borders with ten neighboring countries and has maintained its geopolitical unity[2]. The vast expanse and national unity have served as fundamental catalysts for Brazil’s economic takeoff, propelling it to become one of the most prominent emerging countries on the global stage. Apart from its abundant natural resources, Brazil has implemented significant economic reforms and measures, and shifted its focus towards international engagement since the 1990s, particularly during the presidency of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, who sought to integrate Brazil into the global system and establish it as a rising economic power[3].

This trend continued and gained momentum with the assumption of power by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who succeeded Cardoso. Despite their ideological differences, Brazil’s approach to international relations remained steadfast in accordance with its guiding principles. As a result, Brazil emerged as a trailblazer and a frontrunner in fostering cooperation with foreign countries, diversifying partnerships, and encouraging a policy of integration at both regional and international levels. Under Lula da Silva’s leadership, Brazil took proactive steps to strengthen South-South cooperation through various initiatives, such as the creation of the ASPA and ASA summits for South American countries, the Arab world, and Africa. Lula da Silva also showed particular interest in the Arab world, becoming the first Brazilian president to visit the Middle East, with the aim of playing a constructive role in finding a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

Lula da Silva’s favorable relations with Morocco fall within the South-South cooperation strategy he adopted. This deliberate choice aligns with the Realpolitik pursued by the Brazilian president, solidifying Brazil’s role as a leader in South-South cooperation. Notably, Brazil’s share in Moroccan exports increased from 2% to 7% between 2002 and 2013[4], coinciding with Lula da Silva’s presidency (2003-2011).

During King Mohammed VI’s visit to Brazil in 2004, the Brazilian president made a clear statement regarding Brazil’s orientation towards Morocco. In his speech, he emphasized the comprehensive cooperation agenda between the two countries, addressing crucial issues and aiming to tackle challenges faced by nations in the South. The president pledged to collaborate with Morocco in multilateral forums, seeking to enhance their representation in the evolving political and economic geography. Lula expressed his firm belief that development stems from integrating the competitive capacities of both Morocco and Brazil within the global economy. Furthermore, he highlighted the significance of the Moroccan King’s visit in strengthening Arab-Brazilian relations, particularly exemplified in the ASPA Summit, underscoring the common history and culture between the two parties[5].

During his speech, King Mohammed VI underlines Morocco’s dedication to the success of cooperation with Brazil. He accentuated the profound relationship between the two nations, recalling Morocco’s distinction as the first country to recognize Brazil’s independence during the reign of Sultan Moulay Slimane. The King emphasized that the strength of these relations lies in their shared cultural heritage and their mutual resolve to pursue sustainable and robust development, alongside a spirit of solidarity. This commitment serves as a solid foundation for reducing social disparities and addressing conflicts that threaten global peace and security, including the situation in the Middle East[6].

The speeches delivered by the leaders of Morocco and Brazil showcase a remarkable harmony of perspectives, as they both share the same approach to combating poverty and strengthening South-South cooperation. Both sides focused on the importance of economic cooperation between the two nations. However, what truly distinguished these speeches is the profound recognition of the historical and cultural heritage that Morocco and Brazil have accumulated, which forms a solid foundation for dialogue. Unlike mere introductory encounters, the meetings between Moroccan and Brazilian representatives are built upon historical and cultural legacies that lead to even stronger relations.

 

  1. Brazil: the first contact point between Morocco and Latin America.

Brazil holds a prominent position in the shared history of Morocco and Latin American nations, being the first Latin American nation to establish diplomatic ties with Morocco. According to documents from the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the relations between Morocco and Brazil date back to 1861. Notably, this historical revelation can be attributed to the diligent efforts of Mr. Laarbi Messari, the Moroccan ambassador to Brazil. Mr. Messari stumbled upon these invaluable documents, subsequently submitting them to the Directorate of the Kingdom’s Archives. This remarkable discovery extended the documented timeline of Moroccan-Brazilian relations by 45 years, thereby debunking the prevailing misconception that the relations commenced in 1906.

The historical interactions between Morocco and Brazil predate the establishment of formal diplomatic relations. The first indications began shortly after Brazil’s independence from the Portuguese Empire. Among the early contacts was a letter by Brazilian Consul George Colaço to the court of King Moulay Abderrahman ben Hicham on December 17, 1825, one year after Brazil’s independence. In the letter, Colaço requested that the Brazilians in Morocco be treated on an equal footing with the Portuguese[7].

The Portuguese Empire also played a significant role in the early interactions between Morocco and Brazil, particularly during its dominion over Brazil and certain regions of Morocco. Within this context, a notable event unfolded following the decision of King Dom José I of Portugal, who ordered the evacuation of 2,092 people from Mazagão Fortress[8], present-day El Jadida, towards the Portuguese colony across the Atlantic. This was in response to the intense siege imposed by Sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah on the fortress in 1769. The mass deportation effectively relocated the entire city from the Atlantic coast of Morocco to the banks of the Mutuaca River in the Amazon, comprising 388 Mazaganian families[9]. The migrating city carried with it the culture and customs of its inhabitants, giving rise to what came to be known as Nova Mazagão, meaning “New Mazagão.”

The impact of this encounter is evident not only in historical records but also in urbanism as well, often characterized by a clash between Moroccan Islamic and Portuguese Christian elements. One notable manifestation of this cultural interaction is the São Tiago festival celebrated in the region of Nova Mazagão, Brazil, spanning from July 16th to 22nd. The French author Laurent Vidal delves into this festival in his book « Mazagão, la ville qui traversa l’Atlantique » (Mazagão, the City that Crossed the Atlantic).” Within its pages, Vidal narrates his exploration of the festival, which symbolizes the defeat of Muslims and the perceived victory of Christians. The festival incorporates various events, celebrations, and enactments in which the Muslim army, symbolically, undergoes persecution by the Christian army. This festival has become deeply ingrained in the collective memory and symbolizes the encounter between Moroccan Muslims and Portuguese Christians in the land of Brazil. Moreover, the Mazagão Fortress located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast has been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site since 2004[10].

  1. Moroccan Jews in Brazil

Nestled within the Amazon rainforest, specifically in the Saint John the Baptist Cemetery in the city of Manaus, lies the final resting place of Moroccan Rabbi Emmanuel Muyal. His grave exudes solemnity and is adorned with stones thoughtfully placed by Jewish visitors[11] who have been visiting the tomb for decades seeking the rabbi’s blessings and expressing gratitude for the fulfillment of their wishes. The mausoleum of this Moroccan rabbi has become sacred not only among Jews but also among Christians who regularly visit it. They refer to it as « Santo Judeu Milagreiro de Manaus » (Holy Jewish Miracle Worker of Manaus). Throughout the years, his tomb has become an integral part of the local culture in Manaus. In 1980, the representative of the Jewish community in the city declined the proposal to transfer his remains to Israel[12]. The story of this rabbi dates back to 1900 when he embarked on a journey from Morocco to Manaus, situated on the banks of the Amazon River, to accompany and support the Jewish settlers in the region. After a decade of living there, he passed away due to yellow fever[13].

The dispatch of Rabbi Emmanuel Muyal to Manaus symbolizes the growing number of Moroccan Jews along the banks of the Amazon River, coinciding with the booming rubber production in the region. This led to the establishment of a settled Moroccan Jewish community in the area. The journey began during the 19th century when Sephardic Moroccan Jews ventured towards the Amazon region with the aim of improving their living conditions and engaging in trade[14]. Moroccan Jews built the first synagogue in Belém in 1824, and named it « Porta do Céu » (Gate of Heaven)[15]. In 1880, a staggering 95% of children who completed their education in Moroccan Jewish schools migrated to Latin America, and within a year, over a thousand Moroccan Jewish families migrated to the Pará region, where the rubber industry thrived[16].

Thanks to the rubber trade, Moroccan Jews were able to improve their status in the political and cultural landscape of Brazil and to integrate into the country’s social and economic life. Their presence contributed to the diverse fabric of Brazilian ethnicity, and their descendants emerged as active and influential citizens in various domains. Notable examples include Davi Alcolumbre, who was elected as President of the Senate in 2019, exemplifying the achievements of this lineage. Furthermore, prominent figures like Rubem Medina, a member of the Brazilian Congress since 1967, and Abraham Ramirez Benitez, president of the Moroccan Jewish community and a general in the Brazilian army, further exemplify the significant contributions made by this community[17].

  1. The Arab Component

During the 19th century, Brazil became a sought-after destination for Arab immigrants, particularly Palestinians, Lebanese, and Syrians. This influx of Arab immigrants played a significant role in shaping the demographic landscape of the country. Initially, the early waves of Arab immigrants faced challenges in engaging in agriculture and instead pursued small-scale trade, as they would travel to rural areas and villages, going door-to-door to sell their goods[18]. However, at the beginning of the 20th century, immigrants of Syrian and Lebanese origin started settling in commercial establishments in downtown São Paulo, notably on the bustling Rua 25 de Março. Specializing in fabric selling, they earned the neighborhood the moniker of the « Syrian-Lebanese Colony. [19]» The descendants of these Syrian and Lebanese immigrants went on to thrive in the textile industry, eventually dominating over 50% of the invested capital in the textile industry in the state of São Paulo[20].

The continuous waves of Arab migration to Brazil and the Americas have fostered a remarkable cultural dynamism. Within this context, several Arab writers have emerged, producing novels and poems that express longing for and romanticize their homeland. These literary figures have garnered recognition as « Mahjar poets » who stood out in North and South America. Prominent names in this area include the Maalouf brothers (Fouzi, Riad, and Shafiq), Elias Farhat, and the poet Rashid Salim Khoury[21].

According to a statistical study conducted by the Arab-Brazilian Chamber of Commerce in 2020, Brazil currently boasts an Arab community exceeding 11.61 million persons, with approximately 6% of Moroccan origin[22]. The descendants of Arab immigrants have seamlessly assimilated into Brazilian society, actively engaging in political, economic, and cultural activities. This demographic figure represents 6% of Brazil’s total population of 214 million. Remarkable examples of individuals with Arab origins making significant contributions include Michel Temer, of Lebanese origin, who assumed the presidency following the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff; Carlos Ghosn, a prominent figure in the realms of finance and business, and Fernando Haddad, a presidential candidate for the Workers’ Party in 2018.

Given the significant number of Brazilians of Arab descent, it is not coincidental that Brazil took the lead in bringing together Arab countries and South American countries in what is known as the ASPA Summit. The ASPA (Summit of South American-Arab Countries) serves as a collaborative platform encompassing twelve member countries from the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) and twenty-two Arab countries. The idea of creating this bloc emerged during the visit of Brazilian President Lula da Silva to several Arab nations in 2003. The inaugural summit took place in Brasília in May 2005, followed by subsequent summits in Doha in 2009, Lima in 2012, and Riyadh in 2015[23].

This bloc has failed to realize the collective ambitions of its member nations, primarily due to existing differences and disputes, which rendered many of the final recommendations of ASPA summits mere dead letters. However, on the other hand, Brazil has managed to forge fruitful partnerships with the Arab world, surpassing other South American countries within this bloc. Since the inception of the first summit, the trade value between Brazil and the Arab world has witnessed a significant surge from $10.5 billion to $25.1 billion[24].

  1. 5. The Shift towards Africa

With a population of 214 million people, Brazil boasts the largest African diaspora outside the African continent[25]. The 2010 national census of Brazil revealed that over 50.7% of the total population of Brazil is of African descent. In the 2014 census conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 53% of Brazilians self-identified as black or mulattos. Psychologists attribute this phenomenon to the recognition and embracing of an essential aspect of Brazilian identity, namely the profound influence of African culture, which extends beyond mere demographic statistics in Brazil[26].

The substantial presence of individuals of African descent in Brazil has shaped the strategic outlook of Brazilian politicians towards the African continent. In line with this, the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has adopted a cooperation plan that targets various African nations, including Morocco. This heightened focus on Africa was further emphasized during the two terms of former President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, as Brazil adopted a South-South cooperation approach in its foreign policy. Hence, Africa became a key partner for Brazil, leading Lula to embark on four official visits to the continent between 2003 and 2006[27] to open new economic opportunities and establish enduring partnerships with African countries.

In a parallel manner to the ASPA summit, Brazil took the lead in establishing the ASA summit, which brings together South American and African nations. Negotiations between Brazil and Nigeria began in 2004 with the aim of creating a platform for convergence between Africa and UNASUR. In 2006, the first edition of the summit took place in Abuja, the capital of Nigeria. The ASA summit formed a bloc based on the shared cooperation between two regions that represent the Global South in all its dimensions. With a quarter of the world’s energy reserves, a population exceeding one billion people, and a GDP surpassing $2,180 billion[28], the ASA bloc holds significant economic potential. Additionally, ASA is aligned with the Millennium Development Goals, a United Nations initiative aimed at promoting the development of third-world countries. Nevertheless, akin to the ASPA summit, this bloc has faced challenges in realizing the intended outcomes for its member nations.

  1. 6. Brazil: the fourth global trading partner of Morocco

The quality of diplomatic relations between Morocco and Brazil is reflected in the growing economic cooperation over the years. According to the latest economic data recorded in 2022, the trade volume between Morocco and Brazil reached $3 billion. Morocco exported over $2.06 billion to Brazil and imported $1.06 billion worth of products[29]. It is worth noting that these figures have doubled compared to 2017 when exports to Brazil were around $283.2 million in 2017 and $182 million in 2016. On the other hand, imports have also increased compared to 2017, reaching $247.8 million, compared to $161.1 million in 2016[30]. This upward trend in bilateral trade was also observed at the beginning of the millennium, with an annual growth rate of 11% for Brazilian exports and 23.8% for Moroccan exports between 2000 and 2014[31]. Thanks to this growing cooperation between the two countries, Brazil holds a substantial share in Moroccan trade within its regional scope. Moroccan imports mainly consist of sugar, corn, and soybean oil, accounting for about 90% of the total imports from Brazil, while Moroccan exports are dominated by phosphate and its derivatives[32].

In 2009, the « Office Chérifien des Phosphates » (OCP) entered the Brazilian market with the opening of its subsidiary in São Paulo under the name OCP do Brasil Ltda. This subsidiary served as a link between Brazil and OCP, as the Brazilian market accounted for 23% of OCP’s exports[33]. The establishment of this branch was necessary to meet the needs of a country with a large amount of agricultural land that required soil fertilizers. Over time, the presence of OCP in Brazil strengthened. In 2011, the group signed an agreement with Rocha-Terminais Portuários e Logística, one of the largest companies in port logistics, to facilitate the arrival of phosphate and its derivatives to customers. In 2013, OCP further enhanced its presence by creating a business model to bring its products closer to Brazilian farmers and establish a distribution channel under the name OCP Fertilizantes Ltda. Through this partnership, the group contributed 50% to the Yara complex in Rio Grande do Sul[34]. In the same year, OCP acquired Bunge’s stake in the joint venture Bunge Maroc Phosphore S.A (one of the largest global companies in the food industry), which allowed the group to enter the Brazilian market.

Aviation is also among the sectors of cooperation between Brazil and Morocco, as there are two air routes connecting Morocco and Latin America located in Brazil. The first route, established in 2013 with three weekly flights, connects Casablanca and São Paulo, before the FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The second route was established in 2016 between Casablanca and Rio de Janeiro, before the 2014 Olympic Games, and it is actually a reopening of the route that was operational between 1975 and 1992[35]. Royal Air Maroc did not limit itself to opening these two air routes with Brazil, but also acquired four Embraer 190 aircraft of Brazilian manufacture in 2014. They also entered into an agreement with FC Santos team to place their logo on the team’s jersey and on its Facebook page. The aviation sector’s collaboration extends to tourism as well, with an increasing number of visitors traveling between the two countries. In 2016, Morocco ranked at the top of Arab countries in terms of the number of arrivals to Brazil, with a figure exceeding 4,902 Moroccans visiting Brazil according to the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism’s statistics.

The deepening economic cooperation between Morocco and Brazil has resulted in the establishment of the Moroccan-Brazilian African Chamber of Commerce, to encourage investments between the two countries. Its opening in Dakhla carries profound significance on multiple aspects. The Moroccan-Brazilian African Chamber of Commerce represents a « political message through which it acknowledges, as a recognized institution by the official Brazilian authorities, the Moroccanness of the Sahara. »[36]. It is also in line with Brazil’s pragmatic approach of targeting African markets through the gateway of Morocco.

Conclusion

The historical and geographical factors that have shaped Latin America have contributed to the vastness of Brazil, which stands apart from other colonies in the region that experienced divisions in Latin America. With its vast land borders connecting it to ten South American countries and a large influx of immigrants over the years, Brazil has become a hub of diversity in every sense. This diversity embraces Moroccan traces. When we scrutinize the Brazilian identity, we find traces of Moroccan Jews, Arabs, and African elements. And when Brzil looks to expand its external partnerships, it recognizes Morocco as a gateway that provides access to Africa, Europe, and the Arab world.

Due to these reasons, the relations between Morocco and Brazil are not limited to mere political and economic pragmatism; they stem from bonds and interconnectedness related to the diverse nature of both countries, as well as the choices they have made to bridge the gap across the Atlantic and overcome language barriers. Both sides have laid the foundation for these relations over decades, and strong bilateral relations have served as the basis for supporting economic cooperation, which is why Brazil currently is Morocco’s fourth trading partner.

For these reasons, the arrival of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva to power in Brazil would only have a positive impact on the bilateral relations between Morocco and Brazil. It would also be a continuation of the two terms he spent leading the country, during which no Brazilian actions against Morocco’s interests were recorded. The quality of relations between Morocco and Brazil is not limited to the head of state but extends to other political sensitivities, as demonstrated in recent events: the Brazilian Senate’s adoption of a motion[37] signed by 28 Brazilian senators from different political backgrounds, supporting Moroccan Sahara Autonomy Plan.  [38].

 

Footnotes

[1] Hespress.( 08/2022/01) https://www.hespress.com/%D8%B5%D8%A7%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%BA%D8%B1%D8%A8-%D9%84%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%AA%D8%A8%D9%84%D8%BA-%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%89-%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%A7-927219.html

[2] Yves, Lacoste. (October 2009). Geopolitics : the long story of today.  Paris.: Larousse. (p. 149).

[3] Vagni, Juan José. (2008). Argentina-Morocco from the impulses to the commercial political convergence (1989-2007) [PhD thesis, Universidad de Rosario, Argentina]. (p.188)

[4] Ismaili Idrissi, Boutaina. (2015). “Moroccan-brazilian bilateral cooperation, achievement and prospects”. Moroccan-Spanish Journal of International Law and International Relations. N° 2015. (p 66). file:///Users/macbookpro/Desktop/Dialnet-MoroccanBrazilianBilateralCooperation-5289799.pdf  

[5] Brazilian government presidency website. (2004) Speech of Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva on the occasion of the visit of His Majesty King Mohammed VI to Brazil. http://www.biblioteca.presidencia.gov.br/presidencia/ex-presidentes/luiz-inacio-lula-da-silva/discursos/1o-mandato/2004/26-11-2004-discurso-do-presidente-da-republica-luiz-inacio-lula-da-silva-por-ocasiao-do-almoco-oferecido-a-sua-majestade-mohammed-vi-rei-do-marrocos

[6] The official website of the Kingdom of Morocco (2004). Speech of His Majesty King Mohammed VI in Brasilia during His visit. https://www.maroc.ma/fr/discours-royaux/allocution-prononc%C3%A9e-par-sm-le-roi-mohammed-vi-%C3%A0-loccasion-de-sa-visite-au-br%C3%A9sil

[7] Messari, Mohammed Laarbi. (February 2008). Morocco/Brazil via Portugal and Spain. Morocco and international transformations. A symposium at Hassan II University, Ain Chock, Casablanca. Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, Research and Debate Series. p. 19

[8] Laurent Vidal, From This Side and That of the Atlantic Ocean. Mazagan: Shared History and Memories. Publications of the Institute of Spanish and Portuguese Studies in partnership with the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation. Translated into Arabic by Fatihah Balbah, Rachida Laâlaj, Mohamed Saadan, Rajaa Dakir, Othman Mansouri, and Abdelmoughit Sabih. In collaboration with the Embassy of Brazil in the Kingdom of Morocco. Page 27.

[9] Ibid. P.33

[10] Ibid. p.23

[11] An ancient Jewish ritual that Jews used to perform in honor of their dead when visiting cemeteries.

[12] L, Jeffrey, W, Shari. (2018). RELATIONS BETWEEN MOROCCO AND BRAZIL, Publication by the Instituto de Estudos Hispano Lusófonos and the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation. (page 55)

[13] Chritians in Manaus pray to the jewish Saint. (21/06/2014). Associeted Press. http://www.espn.com/espn/wire?section=soccer&id=11116078.

[14] Assaraf, Robert. (2008). Moroccan Jews Across the World: Emigration and Rediscovered Identity. Translated by Mohamed El Hatimi. Paris. p. 303.

[15] Azulay, Rubem David. (23/08/2019). History of the Jews of the State of Pará. Jewish Amazon Portal. https://www.amazoniajudaica.com.br/2019/08/23/historia-dos-judeus-do-estado-do-para/

[16] L, Jeffrey, W, Shari. (2018). RELATIONS BETWEEN MOROCCO AND BRAZIL, Publication by the Instituto de Estudos Hispano Lusófonos and the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation. (p 51)

[17]  MAP (2014-06-11). Moroccan Jews in Brazil… a major contribution to the Moroccan-Brazilian relations.http://www.mapexpress.ma/ar/actualite/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%87%D9%88%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%8A%D9%84-%D8%A5%D8%B3%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%85-%D9%83%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%B1/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A2%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D9%88-%D8%AD%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AA/

[18] Arlene Clemesha. (06/20/2010) The Arabs of Brazil .. History and the social and economic role. Al Jazeera Center for Studies. https://studies.aljazeera.net/ar/files/2010/20117222636218727.html#0

[19] Ibid

[20] Ibid

[21] Nizar Al-Farawi. (07/05/2014) Hespress. From Diaspora Literature to Coelho’s Worlds… The Brazilian Journey to Arab Culture. https://www.hespress.com/%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%A3%D8%AF%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%87%D8%AC%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%89-%D8%B9%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85-%D9%83%D9%88%D9%8A%D9%84%D9%88-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B1%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7-177816.html

[22] Brazilian Arab Chamber of Commerce (27/07/2020). https://anba.com.br/comunidade-arabe-e-6-da-populacao-brasileira-diz-pesquisa/

[23] Vagni, Juan José. (2009). “The Summit of South American-Arab Countries (ASPA): Balances of a strategic approach”. Journal of International Mediterranean Studies. N° June-December.  https://sites.google.com/site/teimrevista/numeros/numero-8-junio-diciembre-de-2009/la-cumbre-america-del-sur-paises-arabes-aspa-balances-de-un-acercamiento-estrategico.

[24] Ibid

[25] Mestizos are increasingly recognized as black in Brazil. (24/11/2021). Swissinfo.ch. https://www.swissinfo.ch/spa/afp/los-mestizos-se-reconocen-cada-vez-m%C3%A1s-como-negros-en-brasil/47135866

[26]  Rossi, Marina. More Brazilians identify as black and mulatto, El pais (17/11/2015).  https://elpais.com/internacional/2015/11/16/actualidad/1447709861_549398.html

[27] Cristina Andrea Gutierrez Sanhueza. « BRAZILIAN FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA The Use of Economic Strategies during the Government of Lula da Silva (2003-2010) » https://www.uchile.cl/documentos/politica-exterior-de-brasil-hacia-africa-subsahariana-pdf-482-kb_129827_0_3907.

[28] The official portal of the Kingdom of Morocco. (2013/03/27). . The Royal Speech to the Africa-South America Summit held in Abuja. https://www.maroc.ma/ar/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AE%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%A8-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%84%D9%83%D9%8A-%D8%A5%D9%84%D9%89-%D9%82%D9%85%D8%A9-%D8%A5%D9%81%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%A7-%D8%A3%D9%85%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%83%D8%A7-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%86%D9%88%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%86%D8%B9%D9%82%D8%AF%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%A3%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%AC%D8%A7/%D8%AE%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%85%D9%84%D9%83%D9%8A%D8%A9

[29] Le 360. (20/01/2023). The volume of trade between Morocco and Brazil will reach a high record in 2022. https://ar.le360.ma/economie/200812/

[30] Bouchra Rahmouni. 2018. (Morocco-Brazil: long-standing relations between Morocco and Brazil.  Publications of the Institute of Spanish and Portuguese Studies in partnership with the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation. Translated into Arabic by Fatihah Balbah, Rachida Laâlaj, Mohamed Saadan, Rajaa Dakir, Othman Mansouri, and Abdelmoughit Sabih. In collaboration with the Embassy of Brazil in the Kingdom of Morocco. Page 56.

[31] Polónia, S.  Motta Veiga, R. P. Guimarães, E. A. (February 2017). “Morocco- Brazil economic relations: Current situation and strategies for a deeper relationship”. OCP Policy Center. (p 41).

[32] Bouchra Rahmouni. Morocco-Brazil: long-standing relations between Morocco and Brazil.  Publications of the Institute of Spanish and Portuguese Studies in partnership with the Alexandre de Gusmão Foundation. Translated into Arabic by Fatihah Balbah, Rachida Laâlaj, Mohamed Saadan, Rajaa Dakir, Othman Mansouri, and Abdelmoughit Sabih. In collaboration with the Embassy of Brazil in the Kingdom of Morocco. Page 56.

[33] OCP in Brazil. (27/11/2009). L’economiste. N°:3158. http://www.leconomiste.com/article/l-ocp-s-implante-au-bresil.

[34] OCP storms into Brazil. (15/12/2011). L’économiste. N°:3678. http://www.leconomiste.com/article/889592-l-ocp-l-assaut-du-bresil.

[35] RAM inaugurates its new Casablanca-Rio air route. (05/05/2016). Le Matin.http://lematin.ma/journal/2016/la-ram-inaugure-sa-nouvelle-liaison-casablanca-rio/246760.html

[36] Map News. (30-03-2022). The Moroccan-Brazilian Chamber of Commerce in Dakhla promotes international recognition of the Moroccanness of the Sahara.https://www.mapnews.ma/ar/actualites/%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84%D9%8A/%D8%BA%D8%B1%D9%81%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%BA%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%8A%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%AE%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%AA%D8%B9%D8%B2%D8%B2-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%AA%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%81-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AF%D9%88%D9%84%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D9%85%D8%BA%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%B1%D8%A6%D9%8A%D8%B3

[37] From Agência Senado: Motion to support Morocco approved.https://www25.senado.leg.br/web/atividade/materias/-/materia/158004?_gl=1*si71de*_ga*MTM3NzYxODc0Ni4xNjg2NjA5ODY1*_ga_CW3ZH25XMK*MTY4NjYwOTg2NC4xLjAuMTY4NjYwOTg2NC4wLjAuMA..

[38] MAP: The Brazilian Senate approved a motion to support the autonomy plan in the Moroccan Sahara, June 07, 2023. https://www.mapnews.ma/ar/actualites/%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A9/%D9%85%D8%AC%D9%84%D8%B3-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%AE-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A8%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%8A%D9%84%D9%8A-%D9%8A%D8%B9%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%AF-%D9%85%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%A7-%D9%84%D8%AF%D8%B9%D9%85-%D9%85%D8%AE%D8%B7%D8%B7-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D9%83%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B0%D8%A7%D8%AA%D9%8A-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%BA%D8%B1%D8%A8%D9%8A%D8%A9

 

Nyabi El Mokhtar

Nyabi El Mokhtar

Nyabi El Mokhtar is a journalist at the Moroccan channel Al-Oula. He holds a Ph.D. degree from Mohammed V University in Rabat, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences. focusing on « Latin America in the Moroccan Context: Between Political Pragmatism and Common Perceptions ».

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