Moroccan Policy Dialogue Series 2021/2022
June 23th, 2022
Citizen engagement, or voice, participation, and accountability, in decision-making can help create an inclusive society. According to the World Bank Group (2014), an inclusive society must have institutions, structures, and process that empower all groups to participate so they can hold their governments accountable. Governments and public institutions play a fundamental role in supporting an inclusive society.
The Moroccan Institute for Policy Analysis (MIPA) has built the Trust in Institutions Index project to be published as an annual report in order to measure and analyze Moroccans’ level of confidence in various political, economic, and social institutions. This project aims to provide a platform for public debate on the issue of trust in institutions in Morocco and to make recommendations and proposals for decision-makers in order to strengthen institutional trust.
The report mainly targets policy-makers, civil society organizations, academics, and journalists, by involving them in the various stages of the project since its inception. Trust Index I (2020) discussed the particular features of the trust and distrust of Moroccans in Parliament and politics, which is the central institution for the functioning of the democratic life of a country. Trust Index II (2021) identified the nature and level of trust in education and healthcare institutions. This year, Trust Index III (2022) sheds light on public administration and continues the diagnosis of Moroccan political trust after the 2021 September elections that revealed remarkable results and proved a change in citizens’ social and political attitudes.
Trust in government, and political trust in general is a necessary precondition for representative democracy (van der Meer 2017; van der Meer and Zmerli 2017). Political trust is fundamentally shaped by a country’s political context, its historical traditions, and the way politics and the economy work. According to Trust Index III (2022) results, around 69% of Moroccans said that they trust the government, against 50 % in 2021 and 23% in 2020.
A similarly remarkable result is the sudden increase in trust in political parties and parliament. In 2022, half of Moroccans who participated in this survey said that they trust parliament (50%) and political parties (52%), against 30 and 26 respectively one year earlier. (see Graph 1).Similarly, in 2022, half of Moroccans who participated in this survey said that they trust parliament (50%) and political parties (52%), against 30 and 26 respectively one year earlier. This sudden increase in the level of trust in elected institutions is likely to be linked to either of – or both – the management of the pandemic by the government and the 8 September 2021 elections. The findings on people’s participation in the last elections lend some support to this assumption. 42% of the respondents said they participated in the last elections (see Graph 2), and 66% expressed satisfaction with the electoral process (as 37% said they are very satisfied; 29% somehow satisfied).(see Graph 3).
Graph 1: Trust in elected institutions
Graph 2: Participation in the last election
Graph 3: Satisfaction with the last elections
Therefore, the erosion of trust in government is thought to indicate “the crisis of democracy” with direct and severe consequences for the quality and ability of representative democracy, its institutions, and its actors. However, little consensus exists about the definition of trust, the ways to measure it, the cause and implications of the decline/increase of trust in government/and institutions, and the remedial actions the Moroccan government can take to restore trust in government and institutions.
Among the questions that need to be addressed:
- Can trust be boosted through regulation?
- What role does leadership play in rebuilding trust?
- How do trust and confidence affect public services?
The main objective of this policy dialogue is to:
- Explore questions related to trust in Moroccan government/institutions and citizen engagement, which is part of a mutually reinforcing dynamic, by shedding light on different types of trust and their measurements.
- Discuss what the government can do to improve their citizen’s trust in institutions.
Policy Dialogue Themes
- Perceived Level of Trust in Moroccan Public Institutions: Education Sector
Despite the health crisis associated with the spread of Covid-19 and the emergency conditions that imposed it, the demand for education remained the second priority of Moroccans according to the results of the Trust Index II(2021). During the early months of the crisis, the country’s education issues sparked ongoing debate, as did the state’s ability to ensure an educational supply. Online e-learning is described as learning experiences using various electronic devices (e.g. computers, laptops, smart phones, etc.) with internet availability in synchronous or asynchronous environmental conditions. During distance learning, questions arise: does it provide the same knowledge as it used to in the classrooms and how much does it help students gain knowledge? How can we help students who do not have reliable access to the Internet or students who are without the necessary technology to participate in distance learning? Despite the positive aspects of e-learning, challenges associated with distance learning such as disorganized infrastructure, internet problems, technological difficulties, and lack of access to software and internet services remain.
According to some individual interviews that were conducted in the Trust Index II (2021), a group of respondents questioned the effectiveness of studying during the quarantine period (March-June 2021), and declared a learning loss. Moreover, the main observation is that there was no significant difference between the private and public education sectors. Regarding the education sector, the percentages of citizens who are satisfied with the quality of public and private education were equal; 65% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of public education in Morocco, and 64% are satisfied with the quality of private education. Additionally, 12% said they are very satisfied with the quality of public education, whereas 19% said they are very satisfied with the quality of private education. (see Graph 4)
Graph 4: Satisfaction with the quality of education in Morocco
As for trust in the education sector, it is about 66% in public education in 2021 (compared to 48% last year), and 70% in private education (compared to 83.2% last year). Besides, 8% said they do not trust the public school at all, whereas 5% said they do not trust the private school at all.
In general, some differences arose between the public and private sectors that created some preferences among citizens according to their income and place of residence. Through the interviews that were conducted, researchers were able to reach the following differences:
Paying attention to the psychological aspect of students and activities.
Standardized study times.
The credibility of the study points
The function of citizenship education
|Weaknesses||Lack of credibility of grades / academic credentials
The logic of profit and contracting: (a strength and a weakness)
The disparity in educational services for citizens
Weakness of ministerial oversight:
Not exercising all the functions entrusted to the school (education on citizenship + education and discipline..)
|*Professors are absent.
* Lack of resources and capabilities.
* Internal administrative and financial system + disparities.
Among the questions that need to be addressed:
- What lessons can we draw from Covid-19 and education experience?
- Is there an increased risk that the education merchants will gain further ground?
- What solutions for an inclusive education?
- Perceived Level of Trust in Moroccan Public Institutions: Health Sector
In order to guarantee access to healthcare for the whole Moroccan population and to realize the right to health stipulated by article 31 of the 2011 Constitution, the country has implemented law 65-00 of basic medical care. This Act established two main social protection schemes: the basic compulsory health insurance (AMO), introduced in 2005, for employees in the public and private sectors, and the medical assistance scheme for low-income individuals (RAMED), that both partially covers healthcare cost of 62 Percent of the Moroccan population. A health insurance scheme for native and foreign students in private and public education and vocational training was introduced in 2015 which covers about 260,000 beneficiaries.
The World Health Organization places Morocco among the 57 countries in the world that have an acute shortage of healthcare workers. This serious shortage of health professionals corresponds to large disparities in distribution between and within regions, as well as between urban and rural areas. Despite available infrastructure in both urban and rural areas, the number of medical and paramedical staff providing direct patient care in Morocco is well below the critical threshold of 4.45 care staff per 1,000 people required by the SDGs.
With the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak, healthcare systems across the world have been pushed to the brink. The approach of traditional healthcare systems to disaster preparedness and prevention has demonstrated intrinsic problems. Many developing countries, including Morocco, are facing the challenge of ensuring that their health services are affordable, accessible, equitable, and of high quality. Thus, a robust system for training and certifying medical and paramedical professionals is absolutely indispensable for dealing with health emergencies as well as improving overall healthcare standards.
The satisfaction with the health sector services is very low compared to that of the education sector. 41% expressed their satisfaction with the public health sector (38% are satisfied and 3% are very satisfied), while 59% expressed their dissatisfaction (28% are not satisfied at all and 31% are not satisfied). There is a discrepancy between the public and private sectors in this area, as the degree of satisfaction with the services of the private sector, is about 71% (17% are very satisfied and 54% are satisfied). (see Graph 5).
Graph 5: Satisfaction with the quality of healthcare in Morocco
Through individual interviews, the report deduced a negative impression and perception towards health institutions, shown by the dissatisfaction of the questioned group with the sector. Based on the results, there is an acknowledgment of the deterioration of health, especially during the period of Covid-19 due to the absence of medical care, shortages at the level of means and treatments, lack of access to social health system, as well as the emergence of problems related to the infrastructure, human resources.
Among the questions that need to be addressed are:
- What is the situation of health care system in Morocco? How does Morocco compare to other countries?
- What opportunities exist in terms of fiscal space for mobilizing resources for health?
- Will Covid-19 lead to health care reform in Morocco?
- Action Steps to Address Health and Educational Sector Disparities
Investing in health and education has recently constituted important social objectives because a reasonably good level of human capital increases a laborer’s skills, productivity and quality of life. Citizens’ trust towards government is influenced differently whether they have a positive or negative experience with service delivery. Thus, transformation and scaling up of education and health sectors is a multidimensional process that involves the integration of multiple stakeholders. In this section, we seek recommendations to address health and educational sector disparities.
The dialogue targets:
- Policy Entrepreneurs: whom have a vested interest and resources in the policy issue (policymakers, technical experts in the policy area, researchers, professionals, civil servants)
- Other stakeholders: NGOs, research institutions, professional associations, local funding partners, and other civil society organizations that also have key roles to play through aligning their aims and activities with the overall policy and planning cycle. These groups of actors also have an important advocacy role, i.e., bringing attention to priority issues and offering options to solve them.
While the participants meet in person, the event is conducted under the Chatham House Rule, which means “When a meeting, or part thereof, is held under the Chatham House Rule, participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed.”
About The Moroccan Institute for Policy Analysis (MIPA)
The Moroccan Institute for Policy Analysis (MIPA) is a non-profit independent policy research institution based in Rabat, Morocco. Founded by a group of trans-disciplinary researchers, MIPA’s mission is to produce systematic and in-depth analysis of relevant policy issues(political, social, economic, and cultural) that lead to new and innovative ideas for solving some of the most pressing issues relating to democracy.
MIPA’s main activity is to produce systematic, in-depth, accurate and impartial analyses of policy relevant issues. MIPA publishes findings and analyses in the form of policy briefs, research articles and thematic reports. All our publications are published in our website: https://mipa.institute/eng
Each year, MIPA organizes an annual policy forum bringing together researchers, policy makers and government officials to discuss, debate, and reflect on a specific policy theme.
The third main activity of the MIPA is to train young activists, researchers and academics in the policy analysis domain. The aim of the trainings is to prepare the next generation of researchers and academics to take the next step in their careers and build their skills to be able to produce in-depth effective analyses of policy relevant matters. MIPA´s main goals and objectives are translations of what MIPA stands for. Through its work and the different activities it organizes, MIPA seeks to:
- Contribute to the public debate on political issues;
- Publish policy papers, analytical articles and thematic reports;
- Provide advice and expertise to governmental and civil society organizations;
- Promote research ethics;
- Encourage analytical and critical thinking;
- Prepare young researchers and academics to take the next step in their careers;
- Encourage cooperation between the different public and non-public research institutions with shared interests and value.
Moroccan Policy Dialogue Series 2021/2022
The Public Policy Dialogue series 2021/2022 is a formal forum organized by the Moroccan Institute for Policy Analysis (MIPA). It is held monthly, gathering participants from the government, development partners, international institutions, researchers, experts and civil society to discuss emerging public policy issues, challenges and constraints of implementation in the context of Morocco.
The purpose of these series is to deepen awareness and introduce a profound critical policy dialogue between the specialists in the domain of public policy analysis and decision-makers to achieve a thorough diagnosis of policies, multi-sectoral and community-based strategies while constructively criticizing them, proposing policy alternatives and thinking of potential options. These dialogues also provide an opportunity to inform the broader discourse, build consensus and improve understanding on pertinent issues. Therefore, every participant plays a role as both a knowledge holder and knowledge recipient and actively engages in a thought-provoking, frank and constructive discussion.
While the participants meet in person, the event is conducted under Chatham House Rule, which means “When a meeting, or part thereof, is held under the Chatham House Rule, participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed.”
The Public Policy Dialogue series 2021/2022 hope to get a structured dialogue that will create both the learning opportunity and the space for collaboration and joint problem solving. Each policy dialogue event will maintain a half/one day (3-6 hours) time frame in respect of the heavy workload of participants but to limit the reporting component of each meeting as well as the number of subjects to be considered overall. A few weeks following each policy dialogue, a policy brief will be produced and disseminated, summarizing the main points discussed and suggesting recommendations to be followed. The brief will be written in Arabic and English languages.
Points of Contact:
Mohammed Masbah, President of MIPA
Hajar Idrissi, Project Coordinator
Rachid Aourraz, Director of Research
 World Bank, 2014. The World Bank Group Goals: End Extreme Poverty and Promote Shared Prosperity. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Ministry of Health (2018). Stratégie Nationale Multisectorielle de Prévention et de Contrôle des Maladies Non Transmissibles 2019 – 2029
 OMS (2016). Stratégie de coopération OMS-Maroc 2017-2021. p 15.
MoH (2016). Ressources humaines en santé. p.89
MIPA is a non-profit independent research institution based in Rabat, Morocco. Founded by a group of transdisciplinary researchers, MIPA’s mission is to produce systematic and in-depth analysis of relevant policy issues that lead to new and innovative ideas for solving some of the most pressing issues relating to democracy.